Saturday, May 23, 2020
If we were to ask 5 different people the definition of sustainability, we would receive 5 different answers. However, the triple bottom line is a typical concept used often when talking about the subject of sustainability within a business. John Elkinston, a global authority on corporate social responsibility and sustainability coined the phrase for the first time in his book Ã¢â¬ËCannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century BusinessÃ¢â¬â¢, in 1997. His argument was that the methods by which companies measure value should not only include financial bottom line, profit or loss but also a social, economic and environmental one as well (John Elkington, 1997). The concept has evolved into one that often has 3 overlapping circles which indicates that sustainability is typically defined as the place where economic success, social responsibility and environmental protection are all as significant as each other in business. In other words, the concept of the triple bottom line mainstreams the idea of sustainability as including people, planet and profit. It allows a business understand that a long term sustainability in an organisation requires more than just financial equity. It also helps to clarify that when businesses consider what sustainability means for them, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that they had to give up the notion of financial success (Katz, RAK., Page, AP, 2013, Pages 852-855). The public is not satisfied with organisations who mainly concentrate on short term profitShow MoreRelatedSustainability and Triple Bottom Line Reporting Essay1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfocus on the longevity of the organization. The successful business understands the concept of sustainability and sustainable development. Due to the competition in the various markets, businesses must not only be concerned with well-being of the organization but are encouraged to look at their business from the entire perspective in order to see their impact on the world around the m. Sustainability is being considered by an increasing number of businesses due to the increase in environmental awarenessRead MoreThe Corporate Social Responsibility ( Csr ) Activities And Strategies Of A Blue Chip Company2192 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesIntroduction This paper seeks to analyse and critically investigate the corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and strategies of a blue chip company, which has business operations in many different parts of the world. According to Schutz (2012, p125), corporate social responsibility has been defined as the proactive initiatives that a company undertakes with the main objective of solving a pre-existing problem, which directly affects the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s clientele. These problems are usuallyRead MoreSustainability Royal Dutch Shell Essay6614 Words Ã |Ã 27 PagesTable of Contents Page 1. Executive Summary2 2. Introduction3 3. Definition of SustainabilityÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.3 4. An Overview of Sustainability Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦4 5. ShellÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategic Approach to Sustainability6 6. Literature focusing three sustainable issues9 7. Theory/Models used to evaluate ShellÃ¢â¬â¢s response to sustainability12 8. Recommendation on What Shell could do to become a sustainable business14 Read MoreTriple Bottom Line5612 Words Ã |Ã 23 PagesES_TBL_7/1 17/8/04 7:40 pm Page 1 Chapter 1 Enter the Triple Bottom Line John Elkington In 1994, the author coined the term triple bottom line. He reflects on what got him to that point, what has happened since Ã¢â¬â and where the agenda may now be headed. The late 1990s saw the term Ã¢â¬Ëtriple bottom lineÃ¢â¬â¢ take off. Based on the results of a survey of international experts in corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainable development (SD), Figure 1.1 spotlights the growth trendRead MoreManagement Functions Within The Operations Management Essay1872 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesNissan has been able to use key advantages from three different operation theories: Just-in-Time (JIT), Toyota Production System (TPS), and Lean Production as well as integrate concepts such as triple bottom line, ISO 14000 standards, and incorporate corporate responsibility principles to maintain sustainability into their operations. Nissan has incorporated theories such as Just-in-Time (JIT), Toyota Production Systems (TPS), and Lean production into their OM functions. JIT is a process that focusesRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility in the Philippines1221 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMarital Law and the adverse effect of oil shock that brought the Global Financial crisis pushed more Filipino families into poverty. Thus in year 2000 onwards, pushed by new challenges such as increasingly critical consumers of products and services who demand more from the companies that produce them. Companies are now being scrutinized as never before and they are made to measure up to standards of environmental sustainability, ethical behavior and governance structures. Questions arise onRead MoreSupply Chain Sustainability at Gsk4373 Words Ã |Ã 18 Pagesleading global organizations in the world. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management refers to the fact that organization should not only fulfill the wants and expectations of their stakeholders, but also avoid actions that reduce the ability of the interested parties, including the future generations to meet their needs. In order to elaborate, how a leading global organization takes Sustainable Supply Chain Management as a strategic goal, we have prepared our report on GSKÃ¢â¬â¢s Sustainability elementsRead MoreA Brief Report On Suzlon Energy Limited2675 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pages1. Introduction Suzlon Energy Limited is one of the leading names of energy sector having global shared of 9.8% in the world. Operating across 32 countries and have more than 13000 employees. Operations of Suzlon Energy Limited are in Asia, Europe, Australia and America. Suzlon Energy Limited is the third largest manufacturer of wind towers and is a leader in Asia (UK Essay). The aim of Suzlon Energy is to supply power through wind energy to every market, customer by supplying them 600(KW) of powerRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility and Single Strongest Argument1106 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIdentify and explain the major factors in the social environment that create an atmosphere in which business criticism takes place and prospers. dasdasdassadasdasdadadasdadsdadasdasdassssssssssssssssssssss- ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss- ssssssssssssssssssssssscourse? Or is it still a vital reality? 4. Give an example of each of the four levels of power discussed in this chapter. Also, give an example of each of the spheres of business power. 5. Explain in yourRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility ( Csr )1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCorporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has gained a reasonable reorganization in the world of business. Organizations are now voluntarily putting their money in the public causeÃ¢â¬â¢s way more than they are required or forced by the law and proud present their doing their annual reports CSR is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. CSR policy functions as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism whereby business monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of
Monday, May 18, 2020
The Ã¢â¬Å"date which will live in infamyÃ¢â¬ just had a child! As of June 26, 2015, same-sex marriage was legalized in all 50 states of America by the Supreme Court from a ruling that barely passed by a 5-4 vote. Wait a minute. Back up. Do you mean to tell me that boys can marry boys now? That girls can marry girls? That itÃ¢â¬â¢s legal?! Wake up America! Do you even realize what you have done? You have given gay people the right to marry. To marry! Who in their right mind would give gay people that cherished right; or any kind of rights for that matter? Gay people are not like the rest of us; they do not deserve the freedoms that we normal people enjoy. Homosexuals are not human, and there is nothing conceivably human about what they do; they areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"Whenever one violates the natural moral order established by God, one sins and offends GodÃ¢â¬ (LGBT Community: Stop Gay Marriage). Same-sex marriage is a perfect example of this. So, it stands to reason that anyone who professes their love to God should be opposed to same-sex marriage. Furthermore, I have the perfect solution to rid our precious society of these vicious queers. We shall set ablaze every part of this great, green Earth in which these demons exist. Scorching-hot fire shall rain down upon every homosexual individual, and we shall watch as they burn; we shall watch as they are cleansed of their cursed impurities. We will deliver their punishment just as God unleashed his on the sinful cities that committed these heinous acts: Ã¢â¬Å"The Lord rained down sulphurous fire upon Sodom and Gomorrah. He overthrew those cities and the whole Plain, together with the inhabitants of the cities and the produce of the soil.Ã¢â¬ (Gen. 19:24-25) Of course, there is a fairly simpler alternative to abolishing the gaysÃ¢â¬â¢ rights; one that is not quite as gruesome. Recall, if you will, the earlier decades of the 20th century, where Ã¢â¬Å"homosexuality was illegal in the United States under state sodomy laws and being gay was considered a mental illness by the American Psychiatric AssociationÃ¢â¬ (History of Gay Rights).Times were so straightforward back then. If someone was deemed gay, they would immediately be thrown into a psychiatric hospital, never to be seen or heard from
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
By studying the change management theories, techniques, and leadership styles to make managing changes successfully, it is necessary to attend to the wider impacts of the change. Considering the tangible impacts of change, it s important to consider the personal impact on those affected, and their journey towards working and behaving in new ways to support the change. The Change Curve is a useful model that describes the personal and organizational process of change. Change management focuses on people, and is about ensuring change is thoroughly, smoothly, and lastingly implemented. Using some important ideas to help make the communication and deployment of the plan a success: Sponsorship: Guaranteeing that there is activeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Developing the involvement and project activities of the change promoters. Planning how and when the changes will be interconnected, and organizing and delivering the communication messages. Measuring the influence of the changes on people and the organization s structure. Scheduling activities required to address the impacts of the change. Ensuring that people involved and affected by the change understand the process change. Making sure that those who are involved or affected have help and support during times of uncertainty and upheaval. Assessing training needs driven by the change, and planning when and how this will be implemented. Identifying and agreeing the success indicators for change, and ensuring they are regularly measured and reported on. To make our hospital the first hospital of choice, it should have the greatest plan and convince either interior like employees or for exterior like patients. Several studies have observed that there are relationships between quality of health care, health care system costs and between peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfaction. These relationships show that is the reason to accomplish increasing values for customers over time. Quality and process improvements lead to decreased costs, which in turn results in equipment to increase customer satisfaction. On the other hand, we should give a specific attention on the health careShow MoreRelatedThe Case Of Pfizer s Palace Coup856 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction Corporate management is complex as challenges are often diverse. The ability of the managers to maintain efficient performance and the ability to prove resilient to the management wrangles are considerable factors that make managers proficient (Yukl Lepsinger, 2004). More frequently, controlling the top management officials where personal interests and professionalism are constant dilemmas often proves challenging (Yukl Lepsinger, 2004). The case of Pfizer s Palace Coup is amongRead More[Organisations and Behavour] Leadership Styles1131 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand Blanchard (1969) leadership styles There are three principle leadership styles. They are GolemanÃ¢â¬â¢s providing six management styles for leaders to work more efficiently with followers based on situation (Hoang, 2010) and Blake and MoutonÃ¢â¬â¢s in which the combination between the concern for people and for production is presented and result in the effective management style (BPP learning media, 2010). Moreover, the Hersey and BlanchardÃ¢â¬â¢s studies how Ã¢â¬Å"leaders match their style to the competence andRead MoreLeadership And Conflict Resolution Strategies1377 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLeadership strategies are key to how an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ perceive their job, their management and their organization. Leadership and conflict resolution strategies are important to creating job satisfaction and reducing employee turnover, which is an added expense to the organization. Kinicki et al, reviews several strategies and theories about leadership and conflict management. Many of the proposed suppositions, are unable to stand alone to explicate this complex concept. However, inspirationalRead MoreEssay on Contingency Management Theory614 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesContingency Theory Contingency Management Theory can be utilized in most business applications. Contingency Management Theory defined on the premise that there is no best way to lead an organization as there are too variables, both internal and external (McGlone, 2005). The manager must change his or her leadership technique, depending on the situation (Nair, 2009). Contingency Management is dependent on the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s flexibility and personal library of potential responses to fulfill the needsRead MoreTheory and Practice of Transactional-Transformational Leadership843 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRunning head: THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TRANSACTIONAL-TRANSFORMATIO Theory and Practice of Transactional-Transformational Leadership THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TRANSACTIONAL-TRANSFORMATIO Abstract This essay details the different behaviors characterized by the contemporary transactional and transformational leadership models. The specific behaviors of each model are reviewed and their corresponding relation to motivation of individuals and teams are assessed. Both leadership techniquesRead MoreMotivator Theories Essay1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmotivation techniques that will be used for creating Enron as a learning organization. The researcher will provide a description and definition of the motivation technique. Finally, the researcher will provide rationale for the using the selected motivation technique. Description and Definition of Motivation Technique Motivation is the act of getting individuals and/or group to do something that is goal oriented, has an incentive, or positive or negative outcome. Motivation technique is what anRead MoreManagement at Work1470 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCase Study: Management at Work 1. Does the pattern of management developments at GE over the last century seem to reflect the pattern suggested by management theory? Explain your answer. The management developments that GE has formulated over the past century appear to reflect the same sequential pattern that has been suggested by the management theory. GEÃ¢â¬â¢s first organizational innovation was the establishment of their corporate research and development lab in 1900. I believe this innovationRead MoreIlm Leadership859 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTitle: Assessing your own leadership capability and performance (M5.29) 5 6 Assessment criteria (the learner can) 1.1 Review the prevailing leadership styles in the organisation Assess the impact of the prevailing leadership styles on the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s values and performance Level: Credit value: Learning outcomes (the learner will) 1 Understand leadership styles within an organisation 1.2 2 Be able to review effectiveness of own leadership capability and performance in meetingRead MoreLeadership Analysis : John Quincy Adams And The President Of The United States1283 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJohn Quincy Adams (Leadership Quotes.). As a founding father of the United States of America, John Adams is a prime example of a leader in history also having been the first ambassador to England after the revolutionary war, vice president under Washington, and the second President of the United States. The mantle of leadership universally is taken up by visionaries and trailblazers throughout the world and throughout time, but each of them has characteristics and techniques that have helped toRead MoreLeadership Skills, Traits And Behaviors1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Leadership Skill, Traits and Behaviors StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Name: InstructorÃ¢â¬â¢s Name: Date: 26th February, 2015. I have selected the option 1 that is to interview the business leader or any professional. I found it a great opportunity to have an interview with my most favorite leader of Ford Motors. As I want to peruse my career in running my own car manufacturing company. This interview helped me a lot to grasp the clear understanding of the leadership styles and skills which a leader really needs
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
During WW2 Truman, the United States President at the time, was asked to make one the toughest decision in History. Choosing between dropping an atomic bomb or invading are both choices that will result in a lot of deaths. The huge diffrence between the two was who died wether it be the Japanese with the bomb, or the American soldiers with the invasion. Trumans decision was supposed to end the war sooner, hence reducing the amount of agony,deaths, stress or any other negative effects that could result in the continous war. Trumans decision on dropping the Atomic Bombs was an efficient course of action for the Americans, but was deffinantly not the most educated decision. If I had been placed in Trumans shoes and had to make thisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although the Japanese believed it was dishonarable to surrender and probably thought they made the best decision, I am sure they didnt think about the lives they were putting in danger. The civilians that died were not to blame, and shouldnt have had to endure the devastions of the war but sadly they did live on a military port. To my belief the two biggest issues that play a role in making and educated on wether to drop the bomb or not, would be time and money. The U.S. had already spent billions of dollars making these bombs, and couldnt afford to waste anymore money on the war. Sending troops to invade would have cost the U.S. alot of money that they didnt have, mind you they still were facing the great deppression. Not to mention the time that had gone into making these intricate atomic bombs, and the time that had already been wasted fighting the war. The war lasted about six years and could have been longer if Truman hadnt dropped the bomb because of the Japanese ethics and warfare perspective. War always results in destruction, debt, and deaths these outcomes are unevitable. But Trumans choice helped minamize the amount of deaths which is probably the most important catagory. The civilians that died, with out a doubt didnt deserve to die and their deaths will always be remembered and honored. But, theShow MoreRelatedThe Nuclear Bomb: The Controversial Devision in World War II Essay899 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesStates had been in war for almost four years. Over 416,800 American lives were taken, and four percent of the worlds population was killed in World War II. America needed a way to end the war as quickly as possible with the fewest U.S. casualties. A Japanese invasion was considered, but it would put American lives at stake. With the invention of the atomic bomb, President Truman made the most debated decision: the decision to use the most deadly weapon ever invented- the nuclear bomb. It was a veryRead MoreThe Atomic Explosion Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki855 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe disagreement whether it was necessary for the United States to drop the bomb on either Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been going on for about half a century. Many have argued that Harry S. Truman did the right thing while others disagree that it was a horrible decision. There is technically not a right or wrong answer because no one knew what could have happened if the United States did not drop the bombs on either cities. There can only be disagreements over the decisions a leader could make inRead MoreUnderstanding the Decisions to Drop The Atomic Bomb Essay873 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesweapon the United States held in their possession. It was nearly the end of World War II. With Germany defeated and the Allied Forces ready for the cease-fire, only the Axis power of Japan stood in the way of the end of the World War. Worried about Nazi GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s technological advances earlier in the war, the United States began to research atomic energy and the possibility of creating an atomic bomb (Walker 10). When the bombs were created, the arguments for and against the use of it were gruesomeRead MoreTruman s Choice Was A Good One989 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOn August 6, 1945, a bomb with the force of 20,000 tons of TNT, was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Three days later a similar bomb was dropped on the city Nagasaki. Both cities were effectively eradicated and so was there people. Six days after that, Japan surrendered, thus ending World War II. Americans supported the action of Truman, that is until they saw the images of the destructive power of the bomb. The horrific images showing the victims of radiation and of burns that are causedRead MoreBuilding An Atomic Bomb Of The United States Entered Into World War II1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJapanese bombed Pearl Harbor, and the United States entered into World War II. When the United States realized that Germany attempted to build an atomic bomb, Americans began to concentrate on their research abo ut creating an atomic bomb more heavily. President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the Manhattan Project, which included a group of top scientists, under General Leslie R. Groves, who worked around the clock to try to develop an atomic bomb within three years (Beyer, Page 15). The Americans and theRead MoreThe Atomic Bombs On Hiroshima And Nagasaki982 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmind of President Harry Truman when he gave the Ã¢â¬Å"green lightÃ¢â¬ to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has been more than 70 years since that happened and the conclusion of World War II, and yet the legacy remains in our modern day history books and class lectures. But was deploying the atomic bombs on Japan really necessary? What was Truman thinking? And did the end really justify the means? Truly, upon reading TakakiÃ¢â¬â¢s Hiroshima, it led me to believe that Truman was probably more militantRead MoreEssay on The Decision of the Century1031 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Decision of the Cent ury On August 2, 1945, Harry S. Truman made the toughest decision of his life. He knew that if he made the right decision, he would save hundreds of thousands of American lives. In making this decision, he would also be responsible for the deaths of hundreds and thousands of Japanese lives. If he made the wrong decision, the war would drudge on as the death count rose higher and higher as each new battle was fought. Japan would not surrender unconditionally, as theRead MoreThe Dropping Of The Two Atomic Bombs On Japan919 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe dropping of the two atomic bombs on Japan is justified due to the severe casualties caused by the bombing of pearl harbor. Ã¢â¬Å"On watch with the Shore Patrol until 0400 in the morning when I turned in at my room at the Alexander Young (hotel) in Honolulu: About 0800, my slumber was disturbed by explosions and sounds which closely resembled gunfire.Ã¢â¬ On the morning, December 7, 1941, Japan had surprised the world by attacking the Un ited States at Pearl Harbor. As stated by President Franklin D RooseveltRead MorePresident Truman And The Dropping Of The Atomic Bomb1280 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPresident Harry Truman and the dropping of the atomic bomb, many speculators say that it was a great way to resolve the war with Japan while others contradict the action. Through time and preparation, President TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s courageous decision was an answer to end a crisis and by far one of the best problem solving solutions in American history. President TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s bravery in dropping the atomic bomb is and always will be one of the most significant events in American history. At the time of Truman coming intoRead MoreThe Dropping Of The Atomic Bomb During World War II760 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBurnett 5/12/16 Justification of the Atomic Bomb Thesis: The dropping of the atomic bomb during World War II by the United States on Japan was a justified act. Not only was the dropping of the atomic bomb used to save American lives, but it prevented the war from lingering on, taking the lives of more civilians. The bomb did not just make sense, but it saved lives, despite taking some, therefore making the atomic bomb a reasonable action. It is not war mentality to think of preserving the
Capstone CheckPoint Post a 250- to 300-word response in which you explain, in your own words, how HIPAA, ICD, CPT, and HCPCS influence each of the ten steps of the medical billing process. 2. Final Project: How HIPAA Violations Affect the Medical Billing Process Part One: * Resources: Appendix A, Appendix C, and Table 8. We will write a custom essay sample on KaposiÃ¢â¬â¢s Sarcoma and Capstone Checkpoint Post or any similar topic only for you Order Now 3 on pp. 258Ã¢â¬â259 of Medical Insurance * Refer to Table 8. 3 on pp. 258Ã¢â¬â259 of your text to complete the CMS-1500 form, located in Appendix C, according to the following case study: A 67-year-old Medicare patient presents to the office, exhibiting symptoms of HIV infection.After detailed examination, symptoms are determined to be advanced AIDS with manifestation of KaposiÃ¢â¬â¢s sarcoma and other opportunistic infections. Name: James Brown Account Number: 080811 Insurer: Medicare Policy Number: 1098765 ID number: 12345678910 DOB: 02/01/1940 Gender: Male Insured: James Brown Address: 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. Wash. D. C. 60000 Marital Status: Widowed PatientÃ¢â¬â¢s Employer: Retired Nature of Condition: HIV, AIDS, KaposiÃ¢â¬â¢s sarcoma Date of Illness: 06/01/2007 Referring Physician: Thomas Glassman, M. D.Physician ID: 1080808080 Federal Tax ID: 5551116679 Dates of Service: 06/01/2007, 06/15/2007, 07/07/2007, 08/01/2007 Procedure: Detailed examination, screening blood panel, pathology services Patient Signature * Include ICD (categories only), CPT, HCPCS, and insurance information. * If you believe there is insufficient information provided to fill a required field with data, indicate this by typing N/A. * Post the completed CMS-1500 form as an attachment.3. Final Project: How HIPAA Violations Affect the Medical Billing Process Part Two: Write a 1,500- to 1,750-word essay in which you discuss implications of both forms of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s diseases, HIV and AIDS, from the perspective of HIPAA confidentiality. Include the following in your essay: * Discuss why HIV and AIDS information is more sensitive than other types of health conditions. * Examine the social, legal, and ethical ramifications of improper information disclosure. * Provide a minimum of three references from the University Library or the Internet. * Format your essay according to APA standards. How to cite KaposiÃ¢â¬â¢s Sarcoma and Capstone Checkpoint Post, Papers
Suicide is the intentional taking of ones own life and sociologists over the years have tried to put forward various explanations for why someone may do this. Within sociology there are many different views on suicide on the causes and explanations for it, these come from two main methodologies which are Positivists who believe that sociology is a science and they should aim to make causal laws on suicide rates, compared to Interpretivists who believe that they should look for meaning behind occurrences and certain individuals experiences before the suicide. Other perspectives also put in their views on what they believe to explain suicide for example, Realists. Item A references to DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s Structural Functionalist view on suicide, as stated Durkheim believes that due to sociology being a science with the topic of suicide it is very easy to make causal laws or as said in Item A Ã¢â¬Ësocial factsÃ¢â¬â¢. Using quantitative data from official statistics, Durkheim analysed the suicide rates for various European countries and noted four regular patterns. The suicide rate for any given society remained more or less constant over time. When the rates of suicide did change, they coincided with other changes for example; they fell during war times but rose during economic depression or prosperity. Different societies had different suicide rates. Within a society, the rates varied constantly between social groups for example; Catholics had lower rates that Protestants. He identified the two social facts that determined suicide as social integration; the extent to which an individual feels a sense of belonging to a group and obligation to its members and moral integration; the extent to which an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s actions and desires are kept in check by societyÃ¢â¬â¢s norms and values. Therefore, Durkheim concluded that these patterns were evidence that suicide rates couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t simply be the result of the motives of individuals. Due to the fact Durkheim believed that there were a number of causes behind suicide he form four types of suicide from a Positivist viewpoint. Egoistic suicide which is when individuals are not integrated well enough into society for example people who live alone compared to those who live with family. Secondly Altruistic suicide which is when individuals are felt to be too integrated into society causing suicide, for example members of the armed forces were said to have greater suicide rates than civilian personnel as they were too strongly integrated into a united body. Durkheim also put forward the idea of Anomic suicide, this is when the norms and values in society become unclear or confused in times of great social change and an individual is not taught to adapt to changes well enough. For example an unexpected death of a family member is sudden social change which can cause Anomic suicide. Lastly, he suggested Fatalistic suicide. Fatalism is the excessive amount of regulation which leads to one committing suicide. The interpretivist approach directly contrasts the positivist one and seeks to focus on the meanings of suicide for those involved. Douglas criticises Durkheims use of official statistics as they are not accurate and recommends qualitative studies to discover the real rate of suicide. The statistics are a result of a coroners label and thus it is not trustworthy in his view. This suggested that cases are decided on the basis of probabilityÃ¢â¬ . Douglas further seeks to find out the meaning of the suicide and criticises Durkheim for implying that the meaning is fixed. His view can be criticised as there is no reason to believe that a sociologist would be better at interpreting a dead persons meanings than a sociologist. Douglas is inconsistent at times, suggesting that sometimes official statistics area product of the coronerÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions and other times we can really discover the causes of suicide. This further implicates that question that revolves around a death that was it a suicide in the first place? There is no further information to go on other than the coroners. However, the medical knowledge was limited in the 19th century and autopsies were rare. Similarly, most countries lacked the sophisticated modern administrative system needed to collect and complete reliable statistics on a national basis. As a result, because the study lacked reliability, it becomes difficult to conclude that suicide is caused by social facts as Durkheim had suggested. Douglas also criticises Durkheim for aiming to categorize suicide in terms of their social causes. He argues that death should be classified according to its actual meaning and to do this, qualitative methods should be used to analyse the possible causes of death. That way, we can build up a classification of suicide meanings. As Douglas takes the interpretivist approach, the interpretivist explanations of suicide aim to study suicide in a non-scientific manner unlike the positivist explanations. They reject using statistics to look at why people commit suicide and prefer to try and understand the meanings behind why they would commit suicide which they believe isnÃ¢â¬â¢t coherent through statistics. According to Douglas, the decision to classify death as a suicide is taken by a coroner, and so the coronerÃ¢â¬â¢s verdict is based on interpretation. Nevertheless, the coronerÃ¢â¬â¢s decision could be subjective so therefore we cannot exactly argue that the coronerÃ¢â¬â¢s decision is fully accurate. He suggested that there are different types of suicide based on the meaning and reason for the death. For example, in some societies, Eskimos were expected to kill themselves in times of food shortages. Atkinson (1978) takes a different approach as he rejects the idea of coroners being able to objectively classify suicides because the facts are social constructions therefore criticizing the interpretivists approach. Although he accepts DouglasÃ¢â¬â¢ point that official statistics simply reflect the constructs or labels coroners give to deaths, he rejects the view that we cannot get behind these statistics and uncover the real rates or meaning of suicide. All we can study is how people make sense of their world which means studying how the living comes to classify a death as a suicide. He focuses on how coroners classify death and suggests that qualitative methods such as informal interviews and observations might be used. He states that there are four factors that affect a coronerÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to classify death as a suicide which are; the presence of a suicide note, the location and the circumstances, evidence of illnesses such as depression and some types of death such as hanging. Coroners regard information such as this as clues to whether the deceased took their own life or not. Nevertheless, Atkinson has also been criticised for just looking at how deaths are categorized. This is because he demonstrates how coroners just use their own interpretation to decide whether a death was a suicide. For example the use of a note is interpreted as a sign of suicide. As a result, it becomes to accept this explanation as all the coroners have is interpretations of the social world not the objective truth. Taylor (1980s) uses a different approach from the positivists and the interpretivists. He takes the realist approach to suicide which rejects the idea of a clear cut between a Ã¢â¬ËgenuineÃ¢â¬â¢ suicide and a Ã¢â¬ËfakeÃ¢â¬â¢ suicide. He states that most suicides fall in between and calls them Ã¢â¬Ëpara-suicidesÃ¢â¬â¢. Taylor argues that suicide statistics cannot be taken as valid. For example, in a study of 32 people hit by a train, half of the people were classed as suicide even though there was no conclusive evidence of suicidal intent. He found out that coroners saw factors such as history of mental illness as suicidal intents and this increased the likelihood of a suicide verdict. On the other hand, like positivists, Taylor believes we can explain suicide. He believes the real patterns and causes of suicide can be discovered although he does not base his explanations on statistics like the positivists. The realist approach aims to reveal underlying structures and causes which although are not are not directly observable, can still explain the observable evidence. Most theories focus on acts where the individual was intent on dying and that resulted in death. However, Taylor states that not all who attempt suicide are sure their actions will kill them. Nonetheless, TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is based on interpretations of the actorÃ¢â¬â¢s meanings and we do not know if they are correct especially in the cases of those suicides that are successful. Also, individual cases of suicides may involve a combination of motives and may be difficult to categorise. His theory however, is original and quite useful in explaining some observed patterns of suicide such as why attempts differ; both failed and successful attempts of suicide.
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Bland Characterization As human beings attempting to navigate our way through life we must choose a profession that will either benefit our skillet or meet our daily needs of performing what we love to do. Some of us are not so fortunate when seeking out our place of work, and select an occupation that begins to wither away over time and develops to be less important to us. We may be blindsided in the first place that this may be a passion closer to our hearts than we think or even choose it for our own greedy infinite; not the greater good of others. Even if our dexterity calls for the career, our heart may not. In the excerpt from You Cant Go Home Again by Thomas Wolfe, character Judge Bland is depicted as a captivating corrupted evil-lifeless man, who is not interested in his line of work any longer but still maintains an odd ministering goodness. We will write a custom essay sample on Bland or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page These characteristics are portrayed through Wolfs diction and figurative analogies in the setting of Blanks work place, his appearance, and his actions. Wolfe utilizes Blanks workplace to characterize the ominous being, Rumford Bland. The author paints a picture of Blanks character by his surrounding, giving the reader insight into his mind and moral consciousness. An illustration of this is in the beginning of the excerpt when Wolfe establishes a setting for the reader to imagine what Bland is encircled by. The scenery is laden with and old obscure tone along with a worn wooden staircase accompanied by a hand rail, loose as an old tooth, smooth, be sweated by the touch of many black palm, led up to a dark hallway'(4-6). The atmosphere is established as gloomy and ancient, due to the use of past tense, which yields insight that the office may no longer be used. The simile of the rail being as loose as an old tooth expresses the connection between the stairs not being of any use anymore, Just as a tooth falling out when it is no longer needed, verifying again that the office is no longer in use, and that Bland is not concerned with the upkeep of his place of work; displaying that he doesnt care about his occupation. Another case that points out the extent that Bland disregards his profession is inscribed on the gazed glass of the office door, which bore the legend in black paint, partly flaked off. Blanks environment ND the fact that this name is partly flaked off directly connects to the degree of exactly how much he does not value his Job and also if taken figuratively relates to him being hard to read and worn with old age. The condition of his administrative center is in no way, shape, or form exhibiting that law is important to him. But it may have been at one time, reputable attorneys of the town have even admitted that they would have been Judge Blanks match in skill and ability had he chosen to use his talents in an honest way,(49-51) although he didnt take the honest route with his Job ND now his office is run down and vacant his line of work, or was in the past. This passage proves en is very skilled Bland is also depicted as being a sinister-corrupted individual through actions that he carries out, and those deeds portray him as dark and morally inoperative. For instance, there is contact where the reader can examine bland as a third party objective when he meets another individual, he greets them with the deadly weariness of his tone of voice, in the dead-white texture of his emaciated face, in his lank and lusters auburn hair, and, most of all, in his sunken mouth, around which here hovered constantly the ghost of a smile(56-61). A first acquaintance with someone is most important, and can tell you the majority about a person, which later may lead to a friendship of some sort. Surely though many would not be too keen on having a long lasting relationship or even a long conversation with someone like Judge Bland. All aspects of his being repel any other individual, and yet the reader can see that at one time he may have been happy by the description that there linger a ghost of a smile, one might even go as far to say that he took pride in his Job at en time. To understand the complexly of the character that is Bland we must also venture into the deep perception of Blanks secluded private life, which is presented vaguely when an object is introduced. It is positioned against the wall in the back room, and is a plush sofa [and] the room it was whispered, [is] Where Bland took his women(29-30). Bland is clearly morally corrupt, and the fact that the information was whispered confirms it was rumored and many new about his escapades, along with the many women he had his way with; which leads to the thought that if he as so evil what made these women okay with intercourse. Even if the women he slept with were paid one would think many would fear his corrupt soul and find work elsewhere. But it is said there was goodness in him that had never altogether died(86-87). So maybe Judge Bland captivated the women, and this fascination made it acceptable to do what they did with him. Blanks evil persona is also represented in his appearance and how others observed him. His dark soul can be seen at a glance and the profundity of his wickedness is understood when one looks upon him. Wolfe describes him as stained with evil(52) ND as many know a stain is not Just hovering on the surface of the material it is split on, it is much deeper and harder to remove; also becoming permanent over time. Blanks stained with a deep corrupt nature and though it may have not been his choice he is forever marked with the malevolent liquid that is depravity. Another example of Blanks evil nature portrayed through his self-exhibition is the fact he had to wear glasses. He began to wear them after he left his hometown, Libya Hill, and the thin, white face, with its shadowy smile, had been given a sinister enhancement by the dark spectacles which he then wore(68-70). Bland began to go blind and the illness was developing at a worsening pace. His Blindness was not due to cataracts or an eye abrasion, the ailment has been engendered in his eyes long ago. This may be and innuendo towards the many women that he slept with yielding a sexually transmitted disease that can result in blindness and it also can be somewhat ironic that he is in a profession having to do with law, because Justice is blind. The public already was well aware that en was having tort winks Witt many women, and it d not seem difficult to connect the dots that this was the reason his sight was deteriorating. Having a disease you cannot control is socially acceptable but receiving a disease from indecent UN-reputable actions causes people to have unattractive opinions about that person. Everyone was under the idea that he was corrupted, they all knew he was genuinely, unfathomably evil?and evil of this sort has a certain grandeur about it not unlike the grandeur of supreme goodness(83-85) It seems easy for the public to easily recall his goodness, the clean good white material under the dark stain of corruption, over his horrible deeds. Because, after all, people want to see the good in others: they want to see the good in Mr.. Bland though far off it may be. Although Judge Bland lost the importance of his occupation it cannot be denied that he was not skilled in the field he chose to go into. Along with the fact he could have reached a high level of respect and admiration if he decided to chose the route of honestly and goodness, that he clearly contained inside him. Instead of keeping true to being fair and righteous he ventured the path that was easier than that of honor and Justice; the course adorned with immorality. This dark path he took seeped deep into his soul, and caused the corrupt evil man he will die as.